On the ine hand, gender related disparities in educational outcomes are shown in differences in competencies or deficits between girls and boys in different scientific domains, and on the other hand, in an underrepresentation of boys in higher educational courses and on average lower school leaving certificates in comparison to girls. Also regarding the distribution of girls and boys in different types of schools, a trend can be seen that, overall, boys are currently less successful in school systems than girls. A look at the number of students in general education in Germany shows for example that the proportion of boys decreases with rising levels of education.
This planned research project aims at scientifically underpinning the current public discussion about a possible disadvantage of boys at school. Possible reasons for the less favorable educational careers of boys compared to girls are being theoretically integrated into the research approach of "academic development as identity development in childhood and adolescence" and tested empirically. During the continuation period (2013 - 2015) the effectiveness of pedagogical and psychological interventions for male students to improve educational participation and achieving better certificates should be tested.